Addressing Disparities


The estimated number of Americans who live in rural areas that are more likely than their urban counterparts to die from heart disease, cancer, and stroke. (Source: CDC)


The percentage of the population that belongs to a racial or ethnic minority group, but some minorities experience a disproportionate healthcare burden. (Source: CDC)


The number of clinical effectiveness research studies and related projects that PCORI has funded to help patients at risk for disparities and those who care for them make better-informed decisions about their options to improve their health. (As of December 2021)

Evidence for Decisions from PCORI-Funded Studies

Evidence Visualization: Social Needs Interventions to Improve Health Outcomes

Social needs refer to adverse social conditions that are associated with poor health and are identified or prioritized based on patients' perspectives. Addressing these social needs could help improve health outcomes and reduce disparities. This new interactive visualization and an accompanying report summarize the findings from a systematic scoping review of studies on social needs interventions that reported behavioral outcomes, health outcomes, or health care utilization outcomes.

Addressing Disparities Study Spotlight

Research Addressing Health Disparities in Heart Disease

This PCORI-funded project compared usual care to involving community health workers in an effort to reduce cardiovascular disease risks factors in people living in rural Appalachian Kentucky, which has among the worst cardiovascular health profiles in the country.

Study Results that Support Better-Informed Decisions

Increasing Rates of Advance Care Planning among Spanish-Speaking Patients

Advance care planning helps people with serious illnesses prepare for their future healthcare needs. But there are barriers that make it challenging, including a lack of planning materials and information available in Spanish. This study showed that a culturally tailored, Spanish version of a website called PREPARE encouraged Spanish-speaking patients to do advance care planning better than giving them only written forms to state their wishes. The website also enabled them to begin planning on their own without a need for healthcare staff.

Virtual House Calls Provide More Patients with High-Quality Parkinson’s Disease Care

Nearly 1 million people in the United States have Parkinson’s disease, and many of them do not live near a specialist who can help treat their disease. This project found that videoconferencing was a convenient way for people with Parkinson’s disease to get care from specialists.

Teaching Latino Parents Skills to Manage Their Children's Mental Health Care

Latino children with mental illness are half as likely to get mental health care as non-Latino white children. This study created an education program to teach Latino parents skills to get their the mental health care they need. Researchers found that the educational program improved parents’ knowledge and confidence about getting their child care, as well as their skills for working with their children’s schools.

Addressing Disparities Study Spotlights

Reducing Barriers to Care for Patients with Limited English Skills

Immigrants and refugees with limited English proficiency (LEP) are among the communities in the U.S. that face health disparities, an issue that PCORI has always been committed to addressing. A PCORI-funded project is connecting primary care clinicians and patients with LEP to build research capacity.

Improving Care for Underserved Asian Americans with Hepatitis B

Asian Americans make up five percent of the population, but have half of the cases of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States. This study compares usual care to care that also uses a patient navigator and text messaging to see which approach more effectively improves health outcomes and reduces health gaps.

A community health worker and older women view a tablet.

In the Navajo Nation, a Focus on Health Data

Native Americans have the highest rate of diabetes among all US racial and ethnic groups. This study is examining a health project in which trained laypeople, known as community health representatives, reach out to coach people in their communities and help coordinate care.